First proposed in 1998, VIAF was created in 2003 as a joint project of OCLC, the Library of Congress, and the German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek). In 2007, the National Library of France (Bibliothèque nationale de France) joined, and in 2012, VIAF became an openly accessible OCLC service. VIAF works with institutions to create master authority files. It assigns unique identifiers to each of its records, and also links these records to files maintained by its partner institutions (32 agencies as of June 2013, mostly national libraries) (Murphy 2012). Beginning in summer 2012, VIAF files have also begun to be linked to Wikipedia articles, and vice versa.
Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery and the catalog: scale, workflow, attention. Educause Review Online. December 10, 2012. -ways-looking-libraries-discovery-and-catalog-scale-workflow-attention
One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics. When the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were generally closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance. The use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons.
In addition to the full version, a single-volume abridged edition designed for libraries with 20,000 titles or fewer has been made available since 1895. The last printed English abridged edition, Abridged Edition 15, was published in early 2012. 2b1af7f3a8